Innovative Tools for Molecular and Cell Biology

Innovative Tools for Molecular and Cell Biology


Fluorescent Dyes for Inorganic Biochemistry: Specific Detection of Fe2+, Cu+, and Zn2+ Ions

FeRhoNox™-1 – For Specific Detection of Fe2+

FeRhoNox™-1 Selectivity

Selectivity of FeRhoNox™-1

Reaction Mechanism of FeRhoNox™-1

Reaction Mechanism of FeRhoNox™-1 with Fe2+

Fluorescent Spectra of  FeRhoNox™-1

Fluorescence Spectra of FeRhoNox™-1
Before and after incubation with Fe2+

FeRhoNox™-1 in HepG2 Cells

Iron (II) Detection in HepG2 Cells with FeRhoNox™-1 HepG2 cells were treated with Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 (FAS; 100 μM) for 0.5 h, then FeRhoNox-1 (5 μM) was added and incubated for 1 h.


  • Specific detection of Fe2+
  • For live-cell imaging
  • λex: 540 nm; λem: 575 nm


  • FeRhoNox™-1 is a fluorescent imaging probe for detection of iron (II). This probe accumulates in the Golgi complex and reacts selectively with Fe2+. It detects Fe2+ in the Golgi complex of living cells.


  • For detection of Fe2+ in aqueous media
  • For detection of labile iron in living cells
  • More information can be found in the corresponding FeRhoNox™-1 Flyer (PDF).

CopperGREEN – For Specific Detection of Copper(I) Ions in Living Cells

CopperGREEN Principle
CopperGREEN Reactivity

Reactivity of CopperGREEN towards Trace Metals and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS).
Fluorescence of CopperGREEN increases only in the presence of CuI ion.

CopperGREEN Spectrum and Reaction Properties

Spectrum and Reaction Properties of CopperGREEN
(left) Spectrum change of CopperGREEN after reaction with CuI (Emmax = 510 nm).
(right) Reaction properties indicate that CopperGREEN reacts with CuI ions in a molar ratio of 1:1. Reaction takes ~90 minutes to saturate.

Imaging of Copper Ions Incorporated in HeLa Cells

Live-Cell Imaging of Copper Ions Incorporated in HeLa Cells
Fluorescence image of CopperGREEN (green) was overlaid to DIC image.


  • High specificity to copper ions; low reactivity with other trace metal ions and reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  • High S/N: Fluorescence increase of >100 times can be observed upon reaction with copper (I) ion
  • For live-cell imaging


  • Copper is one of the trace metals which are essential for living organisms; it is an essential cofactor for enzymes like cytochrome c, superoxide dismutase, and tyrosinase.
  • However, when copper is present in excess, its redox properties turn it into a biological hazard, because of its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which interfere with cellular metabolism. Sophisticated regulatory mechanisms are available for maintaining a critical balance between the necessity of copper and its toxicity at both organ and cellular levels. Disruption of copper homeostasis in cells results in severe disorders such as Menkes syndrome, Wilson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Detection Principle

  • CopperGREEN is a fluorescent probe to detect CuI, which is a dominant redox state of copper in the intracellular reducing environment. It is suitable for live-cell imaging.
  • CopperGREEN is a colorless probe which shows no fluorescence. When CopperGREEN chelates CuI ion, it is easily hydrolyzed to generate fluorescent material with an excitation maximum of about 480 nm and emission maximum of 510 nm. Fluorescence remains after mild fixation because the reaction is irreversible.


  • For shipping and storage information please click on Order#.
Order# Description Amount Price Data Sheet
GC901 FeRhoNox™-1 50 μg×10 464,00 PDF
GC902 CopperGREEN 50 nmol×5 497,00 PDF
  • All prices are in EURO excl. VAT and shipping. Only available in Europe.

Related Products

  • ZnAF-2 / ZnAF-2 DA – For Specific Detection of Zn2+ Ions
Order# Description Amount Price Data Sheet
SK2001-01 ZnAF-2 1 mg 527,00 PDF
SK2002-02 PDF
  • All prices are in EURO excl. VAT and shipping. Only available in Europe.