Innovative Tools for Molecular and Cell Biology

Innovative Tools for Molecular and Cell Biology


MAR – Hypoxia Detection Probe for Live Cell Imaging

For Cancer and Ischemia Research

MAR Probe

MAR – Fluorogenic Imaging Probe for Detection of Hypoxia

Fluorescence Imaging of A549 Cells

Fluorescence Imaging of A549 Cells under Various Oxygen Concentrations
Fluorescence intensity is increasing when oxygen level decreases. While the earlier described reagent pimonidazole requires immunostaining, MAR enables live cell imaging of hypoxia.

Hypoxia-sensitive fluorescent probe

Hypoxia-Sensitive Fluorescent Probe
MAR is non-fluorescent under normoxia. However, under hypoxia, the azo group is reduced, and a strong fluorescent rhodamine derivative is released, which makes bright green fluorescence.

In vitro hypoxia response

In vitro Hypoxia Response
50 µM NADPH was added to 5 µM MAR in the precence of rat liver microsomes, either under hypoxia or normoxia. MAR was reduced only under hypoxia emitting brightly-green fluorescence.

Comparison of MAR and Pimonidazole

Comparison of MAR and Pimonidazole
A549 cells were observed after staining by either MAR or pimonidazole under various oxygen concentrations. While pimonidazole only responds to oxygen concentrations of 1% and less, MAR already responds to oxygen concentrations as low as 5%.

Flow Cytometry Analysis of A549 Cells

Flow Cytometry Analysis of A549 Cells Stained by MAR
A549 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry after incubation for 6 hours under various oxygen concentrations and stained by 1 μM MAR. Fluorescence intensity is increasing when oxygen level decreases, indicating that the probe is suitable for flow cytometry.

Detection of Hypoxia in Tissue

Detection of Hypoxia in Tissue
Retinal artery occlusion was induced in rat retina by laser irradiation. Increasing fluorescence by MAR was specifically observed in the part of the retina in which occlusion and hypoxia were induced.


  • Fluorogenic imaging probe for detection of hypoxia
  • Gain of signal assays with the highest dynamic range for hypoxic conditions compared to normoxic environment
  • Detects hypoxia in living cells by emitting fluorescence in low oxygen environments
  • Brightly-green fluorescence upon reductive cleavage
  • Excitation wavelength 498 nm / emission wavelength 520 nm
  • Suitable for live cell imaging, flow cytometry, and tissue experiments
  • As sensitive as pimonidazole
  • Easy to use - just add to the cell culture and start imaging
  • Cell-permeant
  • Unlike pimonidazole, MAR does not require immunostaining


  • Hypoxia - a pathological condition in which a region of the body is deprived of an adequate oxygen supply - is closely related to a wide area of diseases, including cancer and ischemia.
  • The MAR Hypoxia Detection Probe is a novel fluorogenic compound for hypoxia detection in living cells. It is non-fluorescent when living cells/tissues are in an environment with normal oxygen concentrations and becomes fluorescent when oxygen levels decline. This is due to the reduction of MAR under hypoxic conditions. MAR is able to work under a wide pH range and detects even mild hypoxia when O2 concentration is around 5% in living cells.
  • These properties – together with the fact that MAR is cell-permeant - make it a highly useful tool for, e.g., cancer research. Hypoxic tumor cells are an attractive target for the discovery and development of novel cancer therapies - both because of the central role of tumor hypoxia in treatment resistance and cancer progression - and as hypoxia provides a basis for selective targeting and the sparing of normoxic cells elsewhere in the body.


  • Detecting hypoxic conditions in 2D and 3D cultures (spheroids), neurons …
  • Detection of tumors in small animal model systems


  • For shipping and storage information please click on Order#.
Order# Description Amount Price Data Sheet
A101-01 MAR 25 μg×5 744,00 PDF
  • All prices are in EURO excl. VAT and shipping. Only available in Europe.

Related Products

Imaging Plate FC (Fluorocarbon)

  • The fluorcarbon plates are especially suited for hypoxia experiments when placed in a hypoxia cabinet/incubator since the bottom of the plates ensures quick equilibration with the oxygen partial pressure of the environment.
Order# Description Amount Price Data Sheet
3231-20 Imaging Plate 24 FC 20 150,00 PDF
3241-20 Imaging Plate 96 FC 20 157,00 PDF
  • All prices are in EURO excl. VAT and shipping. For further pricing and order information please ask your local distributor.


  • GORYO Hypoxia Detection Probe Flyer (PDF)


  • Piao, W. et al.: Development of azo-based fluorescent probes to detect different levels of hypoxia.
    Angew Chem Int Ed 52 (49) 13028–13032, (2013) Pubmed