Innovative Tools for Molecular and Cell Biology

Innovative Tools for Molecular and Cell Biology



Keima-Red for Mitophagy Detection in Living Cells



Excitation Spectrum of Keima-Red

Emission Wavelength Character of Keima-Red under Various pH Conditions
The fluorescent protein Keima has an excitation spectrum that changes according to pH. A short wavelength (440 nm) is predominant for excitation in a neutral environment, whereas a long wavelength (586 nm) is predominant in an acidic environment. The ratio of fluorescent intensity in each excitation condition is an indicator of mitophagy in living cells.

Keima-Red Fluorescent Protein Vector for Mitophagy Monitoring in Living Cells
MBL International’s Keima-Red fluorescent vector provides a simple method for detecting mitophagy in living cells by using a unique excitation profile.

pMitophagy Keima Red mPark2 Vector

Plasmid Vector for Monitoring Mitophagy Activity: pMitophagy Keima-Red mPark2
mKeima-Red (tagged with a mitochondrial localization signal) and Parkin are co-expressed from a single construct.
(MT-mKeima-Red expression vectors without Parkin are also available.)


  • pH dependent excitation profile
  • Simple method for creating transfectant cells
  • Use with any mammalian cells
  • Useful for monitoring mitophagy


  • Autophagy is a cellular self-digestion process for the purpose of providing nutrients to allow cell survival during stress conditions. Autophagy can be selective (mitophagy) or non-selective (nutrient poor). Autophagy plays an important role in maintaining the cell homeostasis by removing non-essential cell components. Recent research has also shown an association of mammalian autophagy with pathological conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, infection, cardiac disease, cancer and aging.

  • Mitophagy is the selective degradation of old or depolarized mitochondria by autophagy and contributes to maintaining a healthy population of mitochondria. Since damaged mitochondria lead to collapse cell homoeostasis, mitophagy is believed to be protective against diseases related to mitochondrial dysfunction such as in neurodegenerative disorders.

  • Parkin, an ubiquitin ligase known as the gene responsible for Parkinson’s disease, plays an important role in the autophagic elimination of mitophagy. When mitochondria are depolarized and dysfunctional, PTEN-induced putative kinase protein 1 (PINK1) accumlates on the outer mebrane and recruits Parkin on the damaged mitochondria. The outer membrane on the mitochondria is then ubiquitinated through the ubiquitin ligase activity of Parkin. Finally, the poly-ubiquitinated mitochondria are selectively recognized and executed by the autophagic process.

Plasmid Vector for Monitoring Mitophagy Activity: pMitophagy Keima-Red mPark2

  • This vector is designed for labeling mitochondria with the fluorescent protein mKeima-Red (monomeric with an emission maximum at 620 nm). mKeima-Red is tagged with a mitochondrial localization signal, and is co-expressed in the cells with Parkin (ubiquitin ligase), which plays a critical role in the induction of mitophagy. Mitophagy can be detected and visualized due to the changes in the excitation spectrum of mKeima-Red before and after induction of mitophagy by drug treatment.


  • For shipping and storage information please click on Order#.
Order# Description Amount Price Data Sheet
AM-V0259M pMitophagy Keima-Red mPark2 (Kan) 20 μg 510,00 PDF
AM-V0259HM pMitophagy Keima-Red mPark2 (Hyg) 20 μg 510,00 PDF
  • All prices are in EURO excl. VAT and shipping. Only available in Germany.


  • MBL Autophagy Brochure (PDF)
  • MBL Autophagy Poster (PDF)